Tamriel trade center
The World Trade Center: We will always remember!
2012.06.21 02:27 polkanils The World Trade Center: We will always remember!
This is a subreddit for discussion and remembrance of the old WTC Towers as well as the new ones. The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. The new World Trade Center is a mostly completed complex of buildings in the Lower Manhattan neighborhood of New York City, US, replacing the original seven buildings.
2021.07.27 13:44 EcoSmartECS EcoTradeCenter
2012.03.16 05:42 digibond Elder Scrolls Online
A Reddit community dedicated to The Elder Scrolls Online, an MMO developed by Zenimax Online.
2023.06.09 10:14 communist-crapshoot The Claires *are* social democrats *not* secret communists and seizing the harbor was not in itself a revolutionary act. It's long past time fans stop lying to themselves and start engaging with the Marxist "ruthless criticism of all that exists" at the core of the game, as was always intended.
Let me preface this lecture by stating that I *am* a communist and have been for over a decade and that before I can get into what I think the Claires are supposed to represent I need to address why Kurvitz & Co. chose a videogame as the preferred medium for their metafiction. The reason Disco Elysium was made the way it was wasn't simply to entertain people with the funny antics of an alcoholic, superstar, hobo cop or to strive towards critical acclaim so the game would sell better. It wasn't even a game made by communists for communists (I mean it was made by communists it's just not preaching to the choir as much as some might think). In fact it's quite the opposite. The story was injected with nihilistic humor and offered up to the general public in the form of a video game to sugar the pill so to speak. That's because Disco Elysium is, at its core, a highly controversial political treatise and social critique "disguised" as a video game. This was so as to get as many people as possible to actually engage with its core messages instead of reflexively rejecting or ignoring them the way they would've if those messages had been presented in the format of non-fiction literature. To put it bluntly the main message of the game is how self delusion reinforces the very things it seeks to escape whether those be personal problems like loneliness or societal ones like the anxiety inducing political limbo of Revachol/the real world. Included in the delusions of a political nature Kurvitz wanted people to confront were many held by the bulk of the contemporary left. Sadly, judging by what I often see in this sub, the results of this novel approach at polemics has been mixed.
I have to admit it's disheartening to see how many fans of the game only engaged with that social and political criticism to the extent that it was leveled at their political enemies, especially when the "authorial intent" was to confront players who might delude themselves about the future implications, present realities and/or history of their own real life politics, whatever they may be. In some cases this ignorance is forgivable; it's easy to miss subtext in a game that's so text based that it has a habit of spelling things out for you and tbf many of the allusions to real life figures, events and ideas are subtle and without a solid grasp of 20th century European history and theoretical Marxism most of the satirical references will go over a typical player's head. What's not forgivable is how many people in this sub are in denial of or otherwise consciously rationalize the criticisms of their own side presented by the writers of DE. I'll get around to how centrists and right-libertarians are guilty of this in future posts but for right now I want to address "my comrades" because, frankly, some of you scare me with your naiveté, hyper-partisanship and blithe hand waving of corruption and needless violence.
Now there are two kinds of leftists I often see who want to view Evrart as a crypto-communist figure and despite being polar opposites in most respects they have two things in common: they're both childishly naive and they're both in denial about the realities of how vicious social democracy can be in practice. The first leftist is a social democrat who thinks that because Evrart is a machiavellian strongman figure that he must be an expy of Stalin and/or Mao (who in their minds are genuine representatives of communism) because "never, ever would a real social democrat do such things, after all we're unassuming trade unionists who want nothing more than to work things out democratically, through the existing system!" The second leftist is a communist who thinks that because Evrart is a machiavellian strongman figure that he must be an expy of Stalin and/or Mao (who in their minds are genuine representatives of communism) because "never, ever would a real social democrat do such things, after all they're unassuming trade unionists who want nothing more than to work things out democratically, through the existing system!"
The truth of course is that prejudices aside Evrart is a social democrat AND a tyrannical strongman. As for his plan to seize the harbor, while it's certainly threatening to Wild Pines' bottom line, the RCM's authority and the union's enemies in Martinaise, it does not in any way pose a genuine revolutionary threat to the capitalist system as a whole and, as weird as it may sound, is still reliant on working within the existing system. After all the union didn't seize the means of production in an armed rebellion against the capitalist state so much as Wild Pines legally handed over some of its corporate property to the union to avoid the bad PR of the merc tribunal which in the end was only tangentially related to the strike. By the end of HBD's investigation all that has changed for the (surviving) workers of Martinaise Harbour Terminal B is their employer. They went from being the unionized employees of the Wild Pines Group under which they had to smuggle drugs in secret to get by to becoming members of a de jure workers' co-operative under the Claires' control where they can now smuggle drugs more openly. That's it. Is that better for them? Maybe, probably, but even so they're still reliant on a global system based on commodity production and exchange and the selling of their labor power (and hardcore drugs) for money, they've just cut out a few middlemen so to speak. Once the strike is officially declared over La Puta Madre's henchmen, not the soldiers of the Coalition, are going to be the union's most immediate threat. Wild Pines itself probably isn't even that hurt by Evrart's plan as the value of what was lost in revenue and real estate can be mitigated by the amount the company will save from no longer having 2,000 + employees on its payroll every quarter.
Oh and to those pragmatists who think Evrart is just a well intentioned man willing to step up and get his hands dirty for the sake of his fellow workers because no one else would or as Call Me Mañana puts it "The old man is corrupt for our benefit" this next part is for you. We know from interviews that Evrart was partially inspired by the character of Frank Sobotka from the second season of the HBO hit TV series The Wire. That said Evrart is in many ways a sort of anti-Sobotka insofar as he's not just reluctantly working with mafiosos; he *is* a mafioso. If you haven't already seen The Wire you need to stop reading this and go watch it to not only understand my next point but because it's literally the best TV show ever made. For those who have seen The Wire I'm 100% certain you'll agree with me that neither of the two hypothetical leftists from earlier could seriously claim that Sobotka was a secret communist or anything other than a reformist labor leader even though he's guilty of most of the same things that supposedly make crypto-commies of the Claires. I also don't think anyone who's seen the show would strongly hate Frank for getting involved in those criminal dealings the way they would the Claires even if some might still think both are wrong for having done so. Most importantly I don't think anyone who's seen all of season two of The Wire and played Disco Elysium to completion would ever claim that the Claires cared more about the Martinaise dockers than the Sobotka family did the stevedores of Locust Point, Baltimore. So what explains the gulf between the two unionistas (besides murder)? Why was it less bad when Frank Sobotka engaged in labor racketeering than when Evrart and Edgar did it? It's simple really, Frank Sobotka demonstrated more authentic labor solidarity, internal conflict, selflessness and above all self awareness than the Claire brothers ever did.
So to summarize: the Claires are written as a counter to those players who have what Lenin called trade union consciousness (meaning social democrats, progressives and center-left, reform minded liberals) who think that the problems of capitalism can be solved simply by increasing the number of trade unions, by legally incorporating more worker co-ops, by expanding strike funds, etc., in a word, reformism. Additionally DE's writers, who're communists, want to knock reformists off their high horses so as to get them to stop lying to themselves and recognize that there is corruption, hypocrisy, violence and even a small presence of incipient fascism in many real life unions, both past and present, and that existing reformist movements, organizations, etc. are just as susceptible to being hijacked by populist demagogues as revolutionary ones are/have been and moreover that they're not always the politically correct, morally unimpeachable, nonviolent alternatives to revolution that they present themselves as. In the end class conflict and its resulting violence goes on whether anyone wants it to or not. It can be and often is a totally subconscious process driven by need at both the individual and group levels. That said the longer class conflict goes on without being consciously directed towards the abolishment of the socioeconomic system whose inherent contradictions bring it into being in the first place, the more chaotic it will become until the point where the mutual ruin of the competing classes is all but guaranteed as a result.
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2023.06.09 09:24 Kreanxx How is black marsh treated by the rest of Tamriel?
Originally I had an idea that argonia was rouge state given how nationalistic and isolationist the ruling an xileel are. But given that both the dominion and the east empire company trade with argonia. but on the east empire trade routes map, it shows tear being part of morrowind, now did morrowind regain tear by the events of Skyrim or is it sorta a tamrielic version of a China/Taiwan situation where one side claims ownership of a certain territory over the other? Anyway backtracking, is argonia treated similar to how Russia is on the world state, where generally there’s some trade but most just want little to do with argonia.
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2023.06.09 09:14 Rocks_D_Xebec4 Doesn't god valley look like......
2023.06.09 09:02 Housing-dream M3M Route 65 Commercial Space
A state-of-the-art retail development project located in one of the most prestigious locations in Gurgaon, Sector 65, M3M Route 65
. Commercial premises, make it the best investment option. This includes the following:
- Retail units
- Langar shops
- Stores enabled for F&B
- Playground for children.
It extends over an area of more than 4 hectares. M3M Route 65 Gurgaon
is launch date was August 1, 2022, and the possession date is February 1, 2027. Highlights
Four levels of retail experience.
Langar shops are present on each floor.
Combination of food and shopping.
Proximity to residential neighborhoods.
The row of luxury houses.
More info:- https://bit.ly/3NncQHH Omaxe Sun RPS Infinia RPS World Trade Center DLF The Crest
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2023.06.09 09:01 bzzzp Daily Discussion Thread for June 09, 2023
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to Winkerpack [link] [comments]
2023.06.09 08:59 luminosisland FT Shinies, Mythicals, Legendaries, Events LF Koraidon
Wow, can't believe it's been 2 years since I've last posted here! The icon changed and everything.
These are the pokemon I have to offer:
Shinies: Vikavolt, Nidoran female (PoGo), Electivire, Kecleon (ger), Audino (jpn), Yanmega (nicknamed), Heracross, Mareep (PoGo), Amoonguss,
Legendaries: Zacian, Cosmog, bird trio, mewtwo, dog trio, lugia/ho-oh, regis, weather trio, uxie/mesprit/azelf, sinnoh trio, heatran, cresselia, cobalion/virizion/terrakion, reshiram/zekrom/kyurem, landorus/tornadus/thunderus, xerneas, zygarde, tapus, necrozma, type:null
Mythicals: Meltan, Zarude
Events: Toler Ludicolo, Abram Cloyster, August Gengar, Ash Hat Pikachu (any)
The above pokemon are legit, here are the more sus ones (meaning i got these from trades and they're lvl 100 and/or 6iv):
Shinies: Ninjask (nicknamed), Kecleon (ger), alakazam (cherish ball, id says pokemon center), Manaphy, Shaymin (x2), Shiny Mew (x2, jpn or eng), shiny tapu lele, tanabata jirachi, darkrai, shiny celebi, shiny shaymin, aura mew, Shiny Scizor (nicknamed)
If you guys want me to toss in some mons with the links as their ID I have a bunch, just ask:
Shiny Jirachi, Cherish Ball Heatran, Shiny Snivy, Shiny Charizard (nicknamed), shiny cherish ball groudon, Sinnoh Cap Pikachu, Shiny cherish ball delibird, shiny tapu koko, marshadow, shiny victini x2, shiny articuno, shiny dialga, venusaur (nicknamed)
All of these pokemon are in Home but I can trade in-game if that's what you prefer.
submitted by luminosisland
to CasualPokemonTrades [link] [comments]
2023.06.09 08:53 PoolMasters2023 Pool Masters: Your Premier Swimming Pool Construction Company in Doha, Qatar.
| || | submitted by PoolMasters2023 to swimmingpools [link] [comments]
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2023.06.09 08:43 kalnhobbs [US, US] (H) Binder (W) List, Paypal
Hey All - Happy Midnight Release! Here's what I have for sale or for trade this post!
Check out my full want list towards the bottom for a mix of personal collection (NM-M) and damaged card wants.
Originally posted 06/08/23 Pacific Time Zone
X-Posted to Facebook & Discord Updates (as of 06/08 at 11:30pm PDT)
: All binder photos up to date
Full Binder - See Breakdown Below:
- all cards unless listed otherwise are pack fresh never played. Inquire about promos as factory packaging is horrible at keeping cards pristine.
$$$ Priced 10% off TCGplayer Low (gold star sellers with >1000 sales $$$ Secrets & Full Arts Special Illustrations / Art Gallery ex / VMAX / V Radiant / Amazing Rare / Celebrations Unique & Stamped Cards / Promos
- for the play promos, if they are sleeved, they are holo Holos / Rares / Playables -
I also have a lot of staple trainers from previous sets; inquire if interested. Miscuts / Crimps / Errors
- Or Best Offer
- Energy Lot (Off center; all minus water have alignment Dots) - $25 obo
- Snorunt (crimp/cut) - $5 obo
- Onix (baby crimp) - $2 obo
- I can include Paypal on my side to help even up trades or buy certain cards outright (if the price is right).
- Pink = High Priority Wants, M/NM only please, Grey = NM to DAMAGED or HIGHLY PLAYED ok! Everything else, LP is fine.
Paypal: $$$ Priced 10% off TCGplayer Low (gold star sellers with >1000 sales $$$
- Everything is negotiable, but I've undercut TCGplayer low or eBay for like condition on all cards.
- Shipping is $1 for PWE, or $5.00 for bubble mailer with tracking (waived if $50+ in cards). Max cards via PWE is quantity 4-6, at which point would need another PWE ($1) or upgrade to bubble mailer.
- Preferring to stay with US only shipping for simplicity. If you are outside the US, feel free to comment and we can discuss.
- If tracking is not part of shipping method, I will only accept Paypal via friends & family.
*please let me know if a link is broken or images are incorrect, TIA
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to pkmntcgtrades [link] [comments]
2023.06.09 08:25 OKXAngels 🚨 $SSWP Suiswap, a native token within the Sui blockchain SuiNetwork ecosystem, gets listed on #OKX!
2023.06.09 07:58 -PrecYse- [WTS] Benchmade Mini Crooked River , S30V / wood
For sale (no trades please)
Benchmade Mini Crooked River , 3.4inch S30V blade, 4.5inch total length, stabilized wood/aluminum https://imgur.com/a/Kd3fuD5
Purchased a bit less than a year ago (original owner) , came off center out the box, didnt affect its functionality so never bothered to get it sent in or swapped out. Also never carried ,used, sharpened. Put the clip on the opposite side thinking id end up using it, never did (im a lefty).
See video for action, drops shut, smooth and swift opening, off center but doesnt affect action at all, just annoying to look at but can probably be fixed if youve had any dealings with off centered knives.
Take it off my hands, letting go of a bunch of knives i dont use
SV: 200 Paypal G&S only
Ships via UPS the next business day, CONUS only
Thank you for viewing, take care!
submitted by -PrecYse-
to Knife_Swap [link] [comments]
2023.06.09 07:57 Temporary_Simple429 Need some help on this one
2023.06.09 07:41 knitshow2023 Impress [email protected] our stall
The most comprehensive garment-textile machinery, fashion accessory, fabric, process and allied services exhibition in India
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2023.06.09 07:40 fakin-_it I have feelings for my friend who is 8 years younger. Would this be too challenging?
I'm f/32 and he's 24. We are both Christians and met on a hike with friends about a year and a half ago. I was not interested at all and if you would have told me I ever would be I probably would have died laughing and not even made it this far lol. He is not my type at all, and the age was always a hard no for me. So, because of these factors I always have had good boundaries with him and never thought more of our friendship. But over the past year he has grown to be one of my best friends and I truly love him, I care for his best interests as well which is also why I'm posting this. I wouldn't want dating me/marriage to bring him extra challenges in life.
In the time that I've known him, I met another guy and dated him off and on for about 10 months. I ended it in March, but it dragged on until about a month ago, which is when my friend revealed to me that he has feelings for me. The relationship I was in I had no peace in and the Holy Spirit was constantly leading me to end it. The guy was 33, but spiritually he was not where I'm at and was unable to lead us in a Christ centered relationship. There were a lot of red flags and we technically broke up twice in those months of dating. I never broke up with him for my friend and, like I said I never saw my friend like that.
But, the past month God has really opened my eyes and heart to this friend, it's almost like wow why did I not see this before. When I did realize he had feelings for me, it was because a couple other mutual friends mentioned things like "I think he likes you" or "when are you guys just going to get married?" Those statements just caused an instant realization that I do love this guy, he is my best friend, we laugh together, I can be myself with him, he always leads me to Christ and the Bible when I'm going through something or seeking counsel, he loves and adores me...etc. He's not the type I'd find attractive, but at this point I'm realizing the guys I do find an instant attraction to aren't good for me. An attraction is there for him emotionally, and growing because I do love him for who he is, it's just weird because I've only seen him as a brother in Christ. We are very compatible though, even him being younger he gets all the same references and likes the same music. We can have deep talks, especially recently since I've been single and he's very receptive to my emotions and caring. I've actually never known a guy to be this sweet and attentive (and I've dated a lot of guys before I was a Christian).
Last summer, he moved to another state and so during that time I've dated my ex. My friend was mostly out of the picture besides phone calls here and there, and visits every few months, but next month he is moving back. We've been talking about things and possibly seeing where the Lord leads us. He's let me know he wants to pursue me and that through prayer he feels God is telling him it's okay to pursue me when I'm ready. I told him I'm not ready right now, due to just being in a relationship. Not to mention our church community I think would be really shocked. I would like to explore if God does have something deeper for us together, but I'm hesitant due to the age difference and being in different places career wise. Neither of us are financially stable, I'm in grad school and he will be starting trade school, but also feels called to be a pastor one day. It makes me nervous that we may not be stable for quite some time.
Would this even be realistic? I do graduate soon, but then I will have to be an associate for 2 years not making much money (I study clinical psychology). Would this be wise to pursue this any time soon? I'm thinking maybe 6 months to a year, if we ever do. Also to add, before I dated my recent ex I was single for 3 years...so I'm a bit frustrated and feel set back, but want to spend at least a few months single to heal and repair my relationship with God first.
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2023.06.09 07:35 Zagaroth [No Need For A Core?] - CH 092: The Enclaves
Next >> Each faction was going to need an encampment, and Mordecai decided to start there. He placed each one on opposite sides of the cavern at its widest point, approximately midway between the entrance and exit. He’d sculpted the cavern to have interesting terrain, so the widest point was a touch off of the center.
He was only going to do part of the work for the encampments, leaving the customization to the laganthros who would be playing the parts. For the moment he started by clearing out a circle of terrain for each side, with half of the circle being carved out of the wall behind them and the other half being out front. The sub-caverns created this way were 20 feet tall, giving them plenty of room to build as they liked.
Now he created small gardens for a new set of mushrooms, special breeds for use as items. The first set of cultivated fungi had their use based off of their normal appearance:
Broad-capped mushrooms were reinforced and designed to be readily broken off to be used as shields. A variant of Morels whose craggy nooks could be used as shelving, trumpet-shaped mushrooms that could be used for a limited time to greatly amplify shouted words, bell-shaped mushrooms that would actually chime when a living creature approached, squat trunk mushrooms that could be grown small or large to act as stools or tables, plus some cupped shaped ones that could easily become actual cups or bowls. He would create more as requested, he couldn’t think of everything himself that others might need, but the goal was to make it so that the two factions had almost everything they needed to equip themselves and to build.
Mordecai ventured further afield with his next set of mushrooms for gardening however. The living crystal had given him an idea when he’d considered the problem of making normally metal items. The mushrooms in this field grew in a variety of shapes but were very heavily infused with living crystals and all grew in spreading patterns. The outer heads are where the crystal would concentrate the most, eventually causing them to crack off on the outermost edge. The resulting material could be knapped much like flint or obsidian to a razor-sharp edge, but over the next couple of days would harden to a toughness more like that of nephrite, i.e. true jade. Jadeite was the more common stone called jade because of its similar appearance, but it was not quite as tough or as hard as nephrite.
It wouldn’t cover everything metal could do, but would be more than sufficient for making weapons if napped, or for anything from art to tools if shaped only after it was fully hardened. Empires could be founded without advanced metallurgy if they had access to even normal nephrite, let alone what could be done with this crystal.
He also altered some mushrooms to sit more ‘in between’. With a more lightweight infusion of crystal for structural support, it was not hard to create fungi whose various parts could be used as raw construction material, whether akin to ropes or materials that could act like wood, if a touch spongier.
Now that he had raw materials down, it was time to call in his troops. Most of them were simply going to be the strongest of the laganthros in their respective specialties, though he did have a couple of additions to make.
The right side encampment was the easiest to assign, calling up some ‘light cavalry’ mounted on polecats, and some aerial cavalry in the form of mages mounted on dracobits, with scouting/infantry support from rangers bonded to caracals.
The left side he gave to ‘heavy infantry’, though he had to make their mounts first. The Riverbridge gifts and trades came in handy here as there had been some farm animals included, and before long he had his porcini boars. And he had them live up to the pun too, growing the squat mushrooms from their thick hide and fur, forming a natural saddle shape as well as extra protection for both the boar and the rider. It was admittedly a more outlandish hybridization than, say, an owl bear, but at least he’d be able to adjust and fix any issues that cropped up.
For support, he gave them various rabbats as ‘falconry’, providing both scouts and an aerial force, and sharpshooters of both archery and gun varieties. The guns were one of the few things that absolutely had to be made out of metal, he couldn’t find a way to reinforce any form of crystal to withstand the shock pressure of the firing chamber. Maybe as a deeper dungeon they could create a heavily enchanted crystal if they wanted to, but it didn’t seem worth the effort.
And the final creation for this level he made as support for both sides, though purely defensively. To take the place of guard dogs, he altered and enlarged some badgers, creating two colonies of Giant Badgers. He only had to alter their base personalities a little, most badgers were quite capable of being social and of being aggressively defensive, he just had to tighten up their pack bonding and ability to work in groups. He also made sure that they were completely immune to all fungal spores and toxins to be found in this dungeon, which also gave them a general boost against toxins and diseases. Dungeon creatures may not have to eat, but it feels natural for them to do so and he wanted to fit them in here with the ability to eat any mushrooms.
Once he was certain that everything was settled well enough, he met with the leaders of his two factions in the safe-space camping spot at the level’s entrance.
“So, what do you think of your enclaves?” Was what he started with, and that led to a couple of hours of discussions, questions, and answers. When all that was settled, Mordecai moved on to making sure everyone was on the same page concerning rules.
“I want this to be a bit more free form than what we’ve done before. You don’t absolutely have to fight any dungeon challengers, but you do have to play the part of a warring party on high alert and be highly suspicious of intruders.” He grinned at them. “If you need to, you can take some acting lessons from your cousins on the third floor. Might make for a good part of that training exchange I set up previously. But you don’t have to let them pass by either. You can deny them passage, you can demand tribute, you can form alliances, or otherwise act how you like. This should all be very dynamic. The only rule I make absolute for you and yours is that this zone right here is a safe space for them. Mind, I am only being so nice here, the ‘wildlife’ won’t be burdened by that obligation, but generally won’t have a reason to attack this location anyway.”
“And when there aren’t any challengers?” Asked one of the troop captains.
“Mostly up to you for the details, I just want at least some of you to be training against each other most days. You’ve been very diligent in forming your own schedules before, I don’t see any reason to change that now. But I’ll let you know if I spot anything I think can be improved on. Similarly, I expect you to let me know if there is anything I can improve. I think I’ve balanced your forces, the forest is heavy enough to keep the mages and dracobits from dominating the battlefield, but if your battle practice shows that I need to change that balance, I want you to tell me.”
The rabbit folk talked with each other for a bit, then when they had reached a consensus turned back to him. “We’re satisfied with this new role my lord. There are a few who have decided they aren’t quite comfortable here after all, but we can find some other recruits to fill their spots so you don’t have to worry about it.”
“Excellent. Oh, one final thing, as a default no one is to support the boss fight.” Which was a change from most of the previous floors. “The exception is if your enclave is assaulted. If that happens and you survive, then you should rally at the final chamber for the floor and support the boss or bosses.”
“Oh, what do you have planned for our bosses?” Came the excited query.
Mordecai smiled. “Well, I’ll show you before too long. For now, you should know that they are not going to start out the brightest and could be hazardous if you get too close, so be very careful if you do end up supporting them. And their names will be Sarcomaag and Klastoria.”
“What is up with those names?” Kazue’s voice asked in his head.
“I’m just having some fun messing around with relevant words.” he replied before focusing back on the faction leaders. “I think they’ll be an interesting new challenge for people who get this far.”
While the two dungeon cores had fun finally building out their fifth level, the rest of the world continued about its business. Their wife was finishing her preparations to come back home and bring Kazue’s father with her, including a quick side shopping trip that she was very careful to not let them in on, which was much easier to do while they were distracted.
Traveling south from the capital city was a merchant caravan with a champion as part of its escort. They moved slowly of course, but by the time they had to start setting up camp the last spires of the city’s central keep were lost over the horizon behind them.
News of their existence was beginning to spread in earnest now, and some of that news even managed to get their names right. The oddness of a dual-core was going to stir curiosity at the least, but it was Mordecai’s name that would serve as the biggest catalyst for making their life more interesting, in differing measures of good and ill.
<<Previous Start Next >>
My Discord if you would like to talk about the book or see what else I am up to.
My Patreon if you want to support me directly.
Also to be found on Royal Road.
$3 Patreon: Early chapters, lore excerpts $5 Patreon: Short Stories $10 Patreon: New stories not published anywhere else (Until after I finish this story at least)
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2023.06.09 07:03 AutoModerator Online Activities Weekly Megathread
Welcome to our Scarlet and Violet Online Activities Megathread!
Please use this thread for sharing link and friend codes instead of creating individual, standalone submissions for them. THIS THREAD IS NOT FOR TRADE REQUESTS. Please use the separate, dedicated Megathread. Previous Thread
Helpful Information to Share / Posting Format Co-Op— Required Information
Tera Raids— Required Information
- Activity Description (What will you be doing?)
- YouThe Host's In-Game Trainer Name
- Link Code
Link Battles— Required Information
- Raid Level
- Raid Pokémon's Name
- Link Code
Sharing Nintendo Switch Friend Codes— Required Information
- Activity Description (What type of battles or Pokémon limitations will be implemented?)
- YouThe Host's In-Game Trainer Name
- Link Code
- Profile Name
- Link Code
- Optional: Additional Information if Desired (Games played, active times, etc.)
Accessing Online Activities You’ll first need to progress through the game until you reach the initial Pokémon Center in Los Platos.
- Online Activities are accessible from the Main Menu via "Poke Portal"
- Once in Poke Portal you can select your desired activity
Tera Raid Battles
- Select the "Union Circle" option, or visit a Pokémon Center's Union Circle directly
- Choose whether to "Form a Group" or "Join a Group": Forming a group will provide a shareable Link Code, Joining a group will ask you to input one
- Once enough people have joined, the Host will have an option to press "Set out together"
- Select the "Tera Raid Battle" option within the Poke Portal
- Input a valid Raid Link Code
NOTE: A Nintendo Online Subscription is required to trade with someone online.
- Select the "Link Battle" option within the Poke Portal
- Input a valid Battle Link Code
If you have policy questions for our moderators, please contact us via modmail.
Comments are automatically sorted by "New" to allow for better discovery.
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2023.06.09 07:01 AutoModerator Trade Requests Weekly Megathread
Welcome to our Scarlet and Violet Trade Requests Megathread!
Please use this thread for finding or requesting trades instead of creating individual, standalone submissions for them. THIS THREAD IS NOT FOR OTHER ONLINE ACTIVITIES. Please use the appropriate Megathreads. Previous Thread Reminder: Please exercise caution while trading. Only trade with people who reply directly to a request left in this Megathread. This is to prevent members falling victim to scammers via PMs.
Hacked Pokémon, as well as any Pokémon obtained through illegal methods, are not allowed! Distributing these 'mons or scamming other players will result in a ban from the subreddit.
Helpful Information to Share / Posting Format Trade Request— Required Information
- Looking For: Pokémon Name(s)
- For Trade: Pokémon Name(s) or Make Offer (if nothing specific in mind)
We recommend you provide these afterwards, once an agreement has been made. Due to the high visibility of this Megathread, it is recommended that you send Link Codes to trade partners privately.
- In-Game Trainer Name
- Link Code
How to Trade in Pokémon Scarlet and Pokémon Violet You’ll first need to progress through the game until you reach the initial Pokémon Center in Los Platos.
NOTE: A Nintendo Online Subscription is required to trade with someone online.
- Open the Main Menu and select "Poke Portal"
- Select "Link Trade" or "Surprise Trade"
- If Link Trading, input your partner's Link Code
- Ensure you and the person you're trading with type in the same code
- Select "Begin Searching" to start the trade
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2023.06.09 06:02 tianchengkao WTT/WTS hinder, demko, neon, heretic
sup KS. happy Monday
SV is for Sell (PPFF only no note. i will return fund if noted) TV is for trade. feel free to reach out. Ship to lower 48
trade interest are TRM neutron ultem scale & TRM atom ti deep texture scale（just scale） demko scale Demko smooth TI ad20S , microtech ultem. and all other ridiculous good shit.
if you have questions. you can always shoot chat/pm but please allow me find time to reply from work. time Heretic ROC
Brand new in box with heretic oil. no sign of use and visible scratch. very unique OTF. action is smoother than MT. i don't know if its the curve design. the ergo and the push button become extremely easy. stonewash blade in my eye is best looking. i am second owner. never use never carry. just sit in home for OTF itch to replace my hellhound. and it is great. list it out here to see if it can trade something i m looking for. if owner want to try out this unique OTF. this retail goes at 400. shoot me any question you have.
3rd owner. sharpened but did a good job. razor sharp. pivot looks zero scratch from both side. cool jade g10 scale see some used sign but not much. with matched ti deep cary. sharkfoot XHP steel. action is without question demko sharlock action. click-clack. this one is for trade for smooth TI AD20S or ultem ad20s . i can top cash or other knife if you like. only going to sell it after i got the TI one. so you can still ask questions. original box.
TV425 hinder maximus
at least 3rd owner. sharpened but did a relatively good job. it can fit all slicy job and no chip. check video.
g10 and ti scale are like new no visible scratch on it. blade is 20cv. this one is sturdier than i expected. and also cool look design. put in my car. had no use. just list there to see if any interest offer to my way. but my interest is TRM ti / ultem . Demko ti / ultem. or microtech ultem. this one came with box paper triway stuff. all of them.
🧨SOLD🧨 shiro neon clone
(A-) Blade centering is very good. Lock-up is about 35% and solid with no lock rock or blade play. The action is excellent, very snappiy open and drop shut. The knife has never been carried or used
submitted by tianchengkao
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2023.06.09 05:47 FridayXIII [WTS] Army Green & White Sitivien ST128 & AliExpress Folder
, thanks for taking a look at my wares. Selling those that never get carried or used. Terms
Timestamps Sitivien ST128 & AliExpress Folder More images available upon request For Your Consideration SV $35 -- Army Green & White Sitivien ST128 & AliExpress Folder
- Shipping - CONUS Shipping via USPS First Class, USPS Priority, or UPS ground at my discretion (unless USPS is required for a PO box).
- Payment - PPGS (No Notes)
- Claiming - Yolo rules apply, but I reserve the right to choose the buyer for any reason. Chat preferred over PM for questions, offers, or haggling. Please comment PRIOR to chat/PM.
- Local Knife Laws - know them, it's your responsibility.
- Trades (No trades at this time)
- Ownership - First owner.
- Centering - In my opinion centering is good for budget knives, with possibly a slight favoring to the show side.
- Lockup - Liner Locks with solid Lockup.
- Condition - Blade and body are in perfect condition as I only displayed these.
- Edge Condition - Factory edge.
- Included - Original box.
- Modifications - None.
- Disassembled - No.
- Action - Sitivien Knifes has excelent lockup and detent. They can be slow rolled and probably flicked open with the proper break in. The Orange handled AliExpress Folder has a good lockup but the detent is very stiff.
- Blade Steel - D2
- Handle Material - G10.
- Notes - All three knives have never been carried or used for cutting. The Green Sitivien has been opened and closed multiple times because I love the feel of the knife in hand. The White Sitivien and Orange AliExpress has lived all of their lives in their respected knife box. I hate to get rid of these two Sitivien knives but I've came to the conclusion I'll never carry them.
Sitivien ST128 Folding Knife,D2 Blade,G10 Handle Folding Knife with Clip, Liner Lock, Army Green
Sitivien ST128 Folding Knife,D2 Blade,G10 Handle Folding Knife with Clip, Liner Lock, White
AliExpress Folding Knife,D2 Blade,G10 Handle Folding Knife with Clip, Liner Lock, Orange
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2023.06.09 05:46 recentlyquitsmoking2 Hitchens on Pat Robertson
“As the year 2000 approaches, it is a safe bet that we will be treated to more superstition and barbarism of the [Pat] Robertson sort, and that other unscrupulous demagogues will try to canalize the fears and doubts of those who have been let down by the education system.” [“Minority Report,” Nation, 10/04/86]
“Whether you are a creationist like Pat Robertson, or a Catholic like Pat Buchanan, or a materialist believer in ‘Natural Law’ like [Harry] Jaffa and others, you can’t avoid the salient fact that the Creator, or the Divinity, or Nature, or Evolution, has evidently mandated that there be a certain quite large number of homosexuals.” [“Bloom’s Way,” Nation, 5/15/00]
"The disappointment was, and to me remains, acute. Within hours, the “reverends” Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell had announced that the immolation of their fellow creatures was a divine judgment on a secular society that tolerated homosexuality and abortion. At the solemn memorial service for the victims, held in the beautiful National Cathedral in Washington, an address was permitted from Billy Graham, a man whose record of opportunism and anti-Semitism is in itself a minor national disgrace. His absurd sermon made the claim that all the dead were now in paradise and would not return to us even if they could. I say absurd because it is impossible even in the most lenient terms to believe that a good number of sinful citizens had not been murdered by al-Qaeda that day. And there is no reason to believe that Billy Graham knew the current whereabouts of their souls, let alone their posthumous desires. But there was also something sinister in hearing detailed claims to knowledge of paradise, of the sort that bin Laden himself was making on behalf of the assassins." - God Is Not Great
"The suspicion that a calamity might also be a punishment is further useful in that it allows an infinity of speculation. After New Orleans, which suffered from a lethal combination of being built below sea level and neglected by the Bush administration, I learned from a senior rabbi in Israel that it was revenge for the evacuation of Jewish settlers from the Gaza Strip, and from the mayor of New Orleans (who had not performed his own job with exceptional prowess) that it was god’s verdict on the invasion of Iraq. You can nominate your own favorite sin here, as did the “reverends” Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell after the immolation of the World Trade Center. In that instance, the proximate cause was to be sought and found in America’s surrender to homosexuality and abortion. (Some ancient Egyptians believed that sodomy was the cause of earthquakes: I expect this interpretation to revive with especial force when the San Andreas Fault next gives a shudder under the Gomorrah of San Francisco.) When the debris had eventually settled on Ground Zero, it was found that two pieces of mangled girder still stood in the shape of a cross, and much wondering comment resulted. Since all architecture has always involved crossbeams, it would be surprising only if such a feature did not emerge. I admit that I would have been impressed if the wreckage had formed itself into a Star of David or a star and crescent, but there is no record of this ever having occurred anywhere, even in places where local people might be impressed by it. And remember, miracles are supposed to occur at the behest of a being who is omnipotent as well as omniscient and omnipresent. One might hope for more magnificent performances than ever seem to occur." - God Is Not Great
"The same can be said of the King epoch. The southern churches returned to their old ways after Reconstruction, and blessed the new institutions of segregation and discrimination. It was not until after the Second World War and the spread of decolonization and human rights that the cry for emancipation was raised again. In response, it was again very forcefully asserted (on American soil, in the second half of the twentieth century) that the discrepant descendants of Noah were not intended by god to be mixed. This barbaric stupidity had real-world consequences. The late Senator Eugene McCarthy told me that he had once urged Senator Pat Robertson—father of the present television prophet—to support some mild civil rights legislation. “I’d sure like to help the colored,” came the response, “but the Bible says I can’t.” The entire self-definition of “the South” was that it was white, and Christian. This is exactly what gave Dr. King his moral leverage, because he could outpreach the rednecks. But the heavy burden would never have been laid upon him if religiosity had not been so deeply entrenched to begin with. As Taylor Branch shows, many of King’s inner circle and entourage were secular Communists and socialists who had been manuring the ground for a civil rights movement for several decades and helping train brave volunteers like Mrs. Rosa Parks for a careful strategy of mass civil disobedience, and these “atheistic” associations were to be used against King all the time, especially from the pulpit. Indeed, one result of his campaign was to generate the “backlash” of white right-wing Christianity which is still such a potent force below the Mason-Dixon line." - God Is Not Great
"The Leader of the Free World was frequently photographed in the company of “end-times” Protestant fundamentalists and biblical literalists like Jerry Falwell and Pat Robertson: tethered gas-balloons of greed and cynicism once written up by Martin Amis as “frauds of Chaucerian proportions.” The president found time to burble with such characters about the fulfillment of ancient “prophecy” and the coming Apocalypse. He also speculated drivellingly that the jury might yet return an open verdict on the theory of evolution. He was married to a woman who employed a White House astrologer. He said that the Abraham Lincoln Battalion had fought on “the wrong side” in the civil war in Spain, which logically meant that there had been a “right” side and that it was the Francoist one. (When the last attempt at a fascist coup was made in Spain, in the early 1980s, the Reagan administration was asked for comment, again in the person of the Strangelovian freak Alexander Haig, who flabbergastingly said that the armed attack on Spain’s elected parliament was a purely internal Spanish affair.) With Haig, Reagan also gave permission to Menachem Begin and Ariel Sharon to invade Lebanon in 1982, and to take their incursion as far as Beirut to do the dirty work of the Catholic Phalange. In order to gratify Chancellor Helmut Kohl of West Germany, Reagan agreed to visit an SS cemetery in Bitburg (Ich bin ein Bitburger) and, as if that in itself was not bad enough, to declare that those interred there were not just “victims,” but victims “just as much” as the civilians they had slaughtered. He made stupid, alarming on-air jokes about pre-emptively bombing the USSR. He pardoned the convicted FBI agents Felt and Miller, who had been prosecuted and fired for illegal break-ins and wiretaps directed at the anti-war movement. In a really sweet irony, one of these men (Mark Felt), as I was to learn, had been the “Deep Throat” whose torpedoes had sent the previous elected Republican administration to the floor of the sea.*" - Hitch-22
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2023.06.09 04:33 buckrogers2479 WTS Demko AD20 Clone by JuFule
SOLD Timestamp: https://imgur.com/a/WYTz7PP Titanium scales (so it says I DID check with a magnet, and they do not have any magnetic properties, if that matters....neither does LEAD,or aluminun - lol), 3V marked blade (not that it matters, it's a Chinese knock-off, it could say "24k Golden Buttplug", but it doesn't, it's *probably* D2 if I had to guess, but it IS sharp as shyte!), comes with box and deep carry clip. It is centered, and stays that way, smooth action, ready to be beaten up. Seeking $60 $50 Shipped PayPal G&S - no trades. Video: https://imgur.com/a/wOYvlYk?s=sms
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2023.06.09 04:29 Bubzoluck [30 min read] The Opioid Epidemic before the Opioid Epidemic - Exploring Morphine Derivatives and the First Opium War (Part 1)
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Hello and welcome back to SAR! I have written and rewritten this post a few times now and I think I have landed on a format I am happy with. When we talk about the impact of medicine on history its important to get the context right, and I think I have found a way to talk about our topic. So what is it? No chemical is more important to the world of medicine than Opium, okay maybe Penicillin, but today we will say its Opium. Principally an analgesic (anti-pain), the Opium Poppy allowed for humans to take away pain in great degrees and further development on the natural chemicals has opened up surgery and post-op recovery. While we tend to look at the recent Opioid Epidemic as the only issue regarding Opiates, history reveals to us a very similar precursor. Also please head over to u/jtjdp
post about morphine derivatives here
! She does an amazing job explaining the higher level concepts of medicinal chemistry that I just wouldn’t do justice. Alright, enough quibbling, let’s get to the good stuff. Disclaimer
: this post is not designed to be medical advice
. It is merely a look at the chemistry of medications and their general
effect on the body. Each person responds differently to therapy. Please talk to your doctor about starting, stopping, or changing medical treatment.
How Much do you Know About Pain?
To be alive is to feel pain, and emo sentiments aside, this is one of the biggest biological properties of the central nervous system. When you think about it, how does the body take external stimuli and allow you to recognize it? The answer is the sensory nervous system which is responsible for sensing many different types of stimuli: temperature, pressure, pain, and chemicals. These sensory neurons carry the information from the extremities and transmit it up the spinal cord into the brain for processing. From there the brain alerts you to the issue allowing you to correct whatever problem is causing the pain. Let’s take a look:
- We call these receptors Nociceptors and activation of these neurons in the periphery leads to a signal being sent towards the spinal cord. Those peripheral nerves eventually complex with the Dorsal Horn of the spinal cord and interface with the central nervous system to transfer the pain signal. This signal is then sent Ascending to the Thalamus where the pain signal is recognized and initiates a response (such as pulling your hand away from the hot stove). But that’s not the full story, the brain also sends signals back down Descending to modify the incoming signal and dampen it. Its this modifying that makes pain fade over time when you aren’t focusing on it—otherwise the brain would be overwhelmed by the repetitive signal and continuously think injury is still happening. Now let’s divide this process into its two parts, first up the Ascending pathway.
- As the Action Potential travels from the periphery towards the Spine it causes the influx of Calcium into the Presynaptic Neuron. This neuron is what carries the original signal to then transfer into the Spine for further traveling. Eventually we reach the Synapse where the finger-nerve and spine meet and we get the transfer of information via Neurotransmitters. In this case, two chemicals are released: Glutamate and Substance P (which literally stands for Substance Pain). Glutamate will activate two receptors (AMPA and NMDA) which are Excitatory and stimulate the continuation of the pain signal up to the brain. Substance P activates the NK1 receptor which enhances the frequency of the pain signal (the throbbing) and the intensity of the pain burst. So to simplify, Glutamate allows the signal to be passed up to the brain but depending on the strength of the original pain signal more or less Substance P is released which modulates the strength and attention-grabbing nature of it. Okay great, we sent the pain pathway up and it will get processed in multiple different parts of the brain. But the brain can’t have that signal stinging it so it must send information back down to dampen that pain signal. This is where that aforementioned Descending pathway comes in. Above you can see how the blue line reaches down out of the brain and back into the spine to turn ‘off’ the signal. This is the basis of Analgesia or pain relief.
- Okay so now we have to divide the action of the Descending pathway which acts to dampen and modulate the original signal coming into the brain. Now, normally at rest this Descending neuron is inhibited so any fresh incoming signal is not inhibited from the get go but once that pain signal does come in, we get the good stuff! In response to pain the brain releases substances called Endorphins which activate the mu Opioid Receptor (MOR) located on the Descending pathway. Now MOR are inhibitory in nature so they are inhibiting the inhibitory resting state of neurons, or in other words, are allowing the Descending neuron to activate. And this is an important fact to recognize, Opiates do not inhibit pain, they inhibit the physiology of the nervous system that prevents modulation of the pain signal.
- Once the inhibition is inhibited, the Descending neuron is free to release two neurotransmitters onto the nerve that was carrying the original pain signal. Both Norepinephrine and Serotonin are released to activate their respective receptors which inhibit the release of Substance P and Glutamate thus decreasing the incoming pain signal. Likewise MOR receptors are found directly on the incoming nerve and further prevent the release of Glutamate and Substance P as well as being found on the Ascending neuron preventing the activation of the NMDA/AMPA and NK1 receptors. The result: dampened incoming signal and decreased pain sense being sent to the brain.
The Stars Align in the Shape of a Poppy
To start our story about Opiates we need to turn to the great precursor—Opium. Opium itself is not a chemical but rather a really thick liquor (called latex) that contains a high concentration of Morphine (and some Codeine). There are 38 species of Poppy plants but only two produce Opium is great enough supply that it is worth farming them and humans have been cultivating these varieties for as long as we have known about the plants. When humans settled into Mesopotamia (near modern day Iraq), Poppies were one of the few plants grown in plots as large grain or vegetable fields (meaning that they were thought of as valuable as food). Throughout the Greek age of medicine (pre-500 BCE) through the Islamic medicinal revolution (500 BC-1500 AD), Opium was a major component of treatment, assisted suicide, and poison. In fact its through the rise of the Muslim Caliphates that we see the export of Opium to other parts of the world, especially through the Mediterranean Sea once the Crusaders return. Opium trading to the East via the silk roads was an almost continuous affair since time immemorial and Pakistan was a major growing area for the Eastern Poppy trade.
- By the time after the Crusades (11-13th centuries), we start to see the West’s fixation on Opium. For many reasons Europe didn’t develop many psychoactive plants to the same degree as more humid/hot climates like Africa, the Middle East, and India. This is why the importation of Opium (and also Marijuana) was such a trade commodity and staple in the development of Western medicine. During the Renaissance and the revival of Greek philosophy we start to see the re-fascination with Opium and by the 1600s we see merchants importing Laudanum into Europe for recreational and medicinal use. The standard use of Tincture of Opium (which is Opium dissolved in ethanol, a DEADLY combination) was a particularly favorite preparation which was prescribed to the lowest day-worker all the way up to kings.
- The importation and use of Opium exploded in the late 1700s once the British conquered a major Poppy growing region of India. This region (western India and most of Pakistan) was originally slated to grow cotton like the American colonies but the region wasn’t wet enough to sustain the plant—it could however grow copious fields of Poppy plants to create Opium. Throughout the 18th century the British Raj became the largest exporter of Opium to Europe and after the discovery that Mercury and Arsenic may not be safe, Opium took over their duties. By 1780 almost all major remedies incorporated the use of Opium in some capacity and with the huge supply, it was incredibly cheap.
- Poppy wasn’t only important to the British for its medicinal properties but also to bolster the huge amount of loss they were incurring in global trade to one trade partner—China. After she made contact with China in the mid-1500s, Britain starting to import HUGE amounts of tea as the Brits became literally addicted to the substance. By 1800 a full 15% of the ENTIRE British Empire’s revenue was being spent on importing tea, that’s 30 million pounds per YEAR, leading to a massive trade deficit. This means that more money was being sent to China literally enriching a foreign country while the British public was getting their fix on the black stuff. Oh and just in case you think things haven’t changed, Britain still accounts for 42.6% of the world’s tea consumption—seriously Brits, ever heard of coffee? Anyways, all this money leaving the British economy to be spent on non-Empire sustaining commodities was a major national security risk for the British. It would be different if they were importing gunpowder like the Dutch were or Silver as the Spanish had but literally they were consuming the riches they were spending the money on.
- Remember too that the British were not in the best position by the turn of the 19th century—they had just lost their colonies in the Americas, involvement in the Napoleonic Wars killed a generation of men, and the push to develop industries over public health led to a focus on fast growth rather than smart growth. One of the results of the Napoleonic Wars was the British occupation of the Island of Java which developed a very potent Opium which was traded with Chinese merchants regularly. Soon British merchants realized they could rebalance the trade deficit by selling Javanese Opium into China but the small island was unable to produce enough Poppies to meet the demand. So Britain turned to another one of its colonies, India.
- India by the end of the 1700s was a bit of a challenge. The British hold on the subcontinent was firm but they couldn’t grow the cash crops they wanted. Indian cotton was nothing compared to Egyptian or Southern American (i.e. Virginia/North Carolina/Georgia) cotton and the Indian tobacco was known for being bitter. But by the 1770s the British government realized that Poppy was an easy crop to grow and the demand across the border with China was an easy market; British traders brought their cargo to small islands off the coast of China where it was sold for silver. Initially the Chinese didn’t mind the sale of Opium in their territory—when the British traders collected the silver from the sale they would almost immediately use it to buy Chinese goods, thus driving tax revenue for the Chinese government.
- But if you buy Opium, people are going to use that Opium. By the 1810s all trade with foreigners was restricted to just one port, Canton, and slowly the city started to develop a habit for the drug. The use of mind altering substances was curtailed pretty quickly for hundreds of years in China—the Ming Dynasty banned tobacco in 1640 and the Qing banned Madak (a powdered Opium containing tobacco) was similarly banned in 1729. But by 1790 more and more Chinese citizens were becoming addicted to the substance; what started as a recreational drug slowly became a crippling addiction that took hold over Canton. For a rigid society, the crippling Opiate addiction was a moral corruption for the Qing government and forced them to curtail Opium importation in 1780 and then an outright ban in 1796.
- Knowing just how devastating the Opium was having on the inhabitants of Canton, as well as how it spread further inland, British merchants kept peddling their drug. Older ships with larger hulls were converted into floating warehouses and parked just outside of navigable waters. Once set up, Opium smugglers would pull up, purchase the Opium and avoid any oversight by the Chinese government to prevent the sale of the drug. Following their mother country, American merchants started to sell Turkish Opium, an inferior variety, at a much cheaper rate leading to drug peddling competition with more and more tons of Opium being sent into China. This drove down the price of Opium considerably which ultimately increased the demand.
- This demand eventually led to reversal of trade, meaning that more silver was leaving China to pay for Opium than the British were using to pay for Chinese goods. American and European traders could show up in Canton with holds full of Opium, sell it off for a profit, and then make a tidy silver profit to bring back to Europe. Likewise the importation of cheap machine-made cotton, furs, clocks, and steel into China driving down domestic profits.
Let’s Look at the Drugs a Bit
Stepping away from the history a bit, let’s introduce the Family. Okay so we understand how pain is sent to the brain and how it modulates but there is so
much more to the mu Opioid Receptor and that’s not the only kind of Opioid receptor that we have. The two most clinically useful receptors are the Mu and Kappa Opioid Receptors
(KOR) because they result in analgesia but there is a Delta Opioid Receptor
(DOR) that is worth mentioning. The majority of the Opiates that we know and love are Mu agonists but there are some very interesting Kappa agonists that are worth mentioning as well.
- Above is a chart that shows the binding affinities of select Opiates to the Mu receptor. The smaller the number is, the more tightly they bond. Now affinity is different than potency—potency is a measure of how much drug (in g) is required to produce the same effect. So even though morphine has a higher affinity than fentanyl, fentanyl has a MUCH more potent effect (which is why it can be so dangerous, you only need a little). Now many of the opiates cause the same effect so I want to spend more time on what makes them all so different:
- First up we have the 5-Ring Morphinians which are derived from the natural product Morphine. These structures have 5 component parts: an aromatic benzene ring (A), a completely saturated bridge ring (B), a partially unsaturated ring with an alcohol attachment (C), a piperidine heterocycle above the rest of the structure (D) and finally a ether linkage between the top and bottom of the structure to keep it fairly rigid (E). Truthfully we are only going to focus on two locations—firstly the top alcohol (red circle) can be methylated to form Codeine, a natural Prodrug of Morphine. A Prodrug is one that is biologically inactive but goes through an initial metabolism once ingested that makes it active.
- In fact it’s this initial metabolism of Codeine that makes it very interesting. In order for Codeine to exert any pain relief it needs to be converted to Morphine which actually exerts the desirable properties. This is done by the liver enzyme CYP2D6 which is a pretty minor pathway for Codeine—only about 10% of the Codeine is actually converted to Morphine to have some action. Because of this 2D6 dependent pathway we have to be careful about administering drugs that might inhibit the 2D6 pathway because that would mean we are preventing codeine from being active. Drugs like Fluoxetine (Prozac) and Paroxetine (Paxil) are strong 2D6 inhibitors and so if we administered Codeine to someone taking this drug they’d never get any benefit from the Codeine. In addition there are genetic/ethnic differences that pharmacists can account for such as 2D6 activity. If you are someone with very little 2D6 activity then you would also not convert Codeine to Morphine and thus get no action from the drug—this may be a reason why some people say Codeine doesn’t work for them. Another reason could be that they are Rapid Metabolizers and quickly convert the Codeine to Morphine and thus get a massive hit quickly after ingestion—in that cause you’d need a much smaller dose than another person for the same effect.
- A different drug that is the opposite of Codeine is Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) which has a Ketone on ring C. This ketone and the lack of the double bond on this ring increases the lipophilicity of the drug and increases its ability to penetrate into the brain and thus have a greater effect. In fact Hydromorphone is 5-10x more potent than Morphine due to its greater ability to penetrate into the brain and increased receptor affinity for the mu receptor. Because the A ring OH is not capped with a methyl group, we don’t need to rely on 2D6 to metabolize Hydromorphone into an active drug form which again increases the activity of this drug compared to Codeine.
- So combine these two structural changes—the capped OH on ring A as seen in Codeine and the increased affinity found with the ketone in Hydromorphone and we get Hydrocodone (Norco, Lorcet). Well in this case you’d get a drug that has very good affinity for the mu receptor (better than codeine) BUT is still reliant on the small 2D6 pathway for activation (worse than morphine). In this regard only about 10% of Hydrocodone is active at a time. We can see this effect in the relative doses for equivalent effect: to match the effect of 30mg of Morphine, we’d need only 7.5mg of Hydromorphone (more active) but need 200mg of Codeine (less active).
- This brings us to our last drug of this class, Oxycodone which has a special OH group found on Ring B. What you’ll notice is that Oxycodone has that capped OH on ring A so it requires metabolism through 2D6 just like Codeine and Hydrocodone. When it is uncapped it becomes Oxymorphone which has 3 times as much effect as Morphine BUT that extra OH makes Oxycodone an exclusive Mu receptor agonist. Unlike the other drugs which may go to other receptors causing side effects (more on this later).
- Next up I want to look at some Mu opioid receptor Antagonists or those than inhibit the function of the opioid receptor. Looking at the first two drugs, Naloxone and Naltrexone, we can see that they have the structure similar to Hydromorphone so they would have incredible brain penetration and affinity for opioid receptors BUT they contain that funky Nitrogen tail. Now normally there is a short methyl tail that is required for the function of Morphine but by adding a bulkier tail the drug is able to fit inside the receptor but prevent activation. What’s most important about these two drugs is that they have much more affinity for the receptor than other opiates. We can see this effect in the graph above: when no Naloxone is present, Fentanyl occupies the opiate receptor about 75% of the time. But as soon as Naloxone is administered that number drops swiftly (within minutes)--this is because Naloxone has a higher affinity for sitting in the receptor than Fentanyl. Think of it like the bully Naloxone coming up and pushing the poor defenseless Fentanyl off the swings so the bully can play on it (except in this instance Fentanyl is causing an overdose and we need to save someone’s life).
- Buprenorphine is similar but it is a Partial Agonist instead of being a full antagonist. Buprenorphine is not a 5-ring Morphinian byt a 6-ring Oripavine that has a few different modifications. The biggest additions is that it has the bulky Nitrogen tail found in full Antagonists but it has this funky C ring tail which fights the antagonism. The result is a tug of war between the antagonism of the Nitrogen tail and the agonism of this new C-ring tail resulting in Partial agonism—so if you took Buprenorphine you’d notice a markedly decreased pain relieving ability but importantly there is a ceiling effect, its much harder to overdose on Buprenorphine than other full agonists. In addition in the second graph we can see that Buprenorphine has the greatest affinity for the receptor than our other agonists which prevents someone from taking a more potent opiate while taking Buprenorphine. In this case the bully is already sitting on the swing and scaring away the other kids thus preventing them from having a turn (and potentially causing an overdose). This does mean that if someone was taking a more potent drug (like Fentanyl) and then took Buprenorphine, it would cause withdrawal just like Naloxone or Naltrexone.
- Speaking of withdrawal, let’s take a look at how that happens. Remember that the pain signal is caused by the activation of AMPA and NMDA receptors from the peripheral nerve. AMPA is a type of receptor called a G-Protein Coupled Receptor or GPCR which in this case is linked to an Excitatory G-protein which leads to the activation of the nerve. When AMPA is activated, the G-protein (Ga) activates an enzyme called Adenylate Cyclase (AC) which increases the production of pro-activity cAMP—or in simpler terms—when AMPA is activated, it leads to an increase in levels of pro-pain molecule cAMP. The Opioid receptor is also a GPCR but it is linked to an inhibitory G-protein which prevents the action of Adenylate Cyclase and thus leads to a decrease in cAMP levels. So Opiates prevent pro-pain cAMP signaling from continuing.
- In the second graph we can see how tolerance forms. Initially (A), Adenylate Cyclase and cAMP levels are not affected by having opiates even though their ability to push along the pain signal is blocked. After a few hours, the leftover cAMP is degraded and cAMP levels start to drop significantly (B). In response to these levels going down, the activity of Adenylate Cyclase starts to increase and increase (C) which raises the level of cAMP. This rise in Adenylate Cyclase activity opposes the action of the opiate which necessitates the need for increased doses of Opiates and is why tolerance forms. As sustained inhibition of Adenylate Cyclase continues, the body upregulates Adenylate Cyclase activity to create more cAMP and to combat this we increase the dose.
- Now what if after years of taking an Opiate we suddenly administer Naloxone, an Opiate antagonist. Well after weeks to months of taking an Opiate, the level of Adenylate Cyclase activity is WAY above baseline. When you administer the antagonist, suddenly Adenylate Cyclase is able to produce a TON of cAMP that normally is blocked which leads to a MASSIVE amount of downstream signaling. The result is intense nausea and vomiting, stomach cramps, fever, anxiety, insomnia, and cravings. Thankfully the withdrawal process ends after about 72 hours but is one of the worst experiences someone can go through which is why proper down-tapering of Opiates is extremely important.
A Change in Trade Policy
Oh, you’re still here. Neat! So by the 1820s the Qing dynasty was running into many problems regarding Opium. Firstly they needed the Opium taxes to fund their efforts to put down the White Lotus Rebellion and retain power. But after almost 30 years of trade the effects on Chinese communities could not be ignored along with local officials operating under the imperial trade department, the Hong
, profiting from bribes to allow Opium. Regardless of initial efforts things were getting out of hand for the Qing government. In 1800, about 4000 chests of Opium or 560,000 pounds entered the country but by 1830 that number exploded to 20,000 chests or about 3 million pounds. But more than the amount of Opium actually entering the country was the incessant rudeness of the British government to open trade.
- One of the “problems” for the British traders was how clamped down trade was with China. By 1800 all trade was limited to just Canton and the Hong was a strict master of trade. Foreigners were not allowed to appeal decisions made by the Hong and only Chinese traders could sell goods further inland than Canton. Traders chafed against this extreme oversight and sent hundreds of letters to the Hong requesting special dispensations which were summarily denied. Things changed significantly in 1834 when the Chinese trade was de-monopolized away from the East India Company allowing any private trader to get involved in the Eastern trade.
- In August of 1834, the British sent Lord William John Napier to Macau as superintendent of Chinese trade with the explicit order to follow all Chinese regulations. Thinking he knows best, Napier decided that the restrictive Chinese trade system was too restrictive and sent a letter to the Viceroy of Canton. This was unheard of—NO foreign traders were allowed to speak directly with Chinese officials and the Viceroy refused to accept it. So why not double down by ordering two British ships to BOMBARD two Pearl River forts as a show of force? Luckily Napier died of Typhus almost directly after else it would have resulted in a full blown war.
- In 1839 the Qing government appointed Lin Zexu as the Opium czar to completely eradicate the Opium trade from China. Lin banned the sale of Opium in China completely, set up rehabilitation centers for those affected by the drug, and put addicts to work to distract them while detoxing. Lin demanded that all Opium supplies must be surrendered to Qing authorities and any Chinese citizen disobeying the order would be punishable by death. He even went as far as closing the Pearl River Channel, trapping British traders in Canton and seizing their Opium warehouse stockpiles.
- The replacement for Napier was Admiral Sir Charles Elliot who protested the seizure of the Opium stockpile but knew that they could do nothing. He ordered all Opium ships to flee and prepare for battle which caused Lin Zexu to beseige a group of traders inside a Canton warehouse. Elliot convinced the traders to cooperate with the Chinese government and surrender their stock, saying that the British government would compensate for the lost Opium (which he had no authority to do). During April and May 1839 the British (and American) traders to surrender 20,000 chests of Opium which was burned for three days outside Canton. Following the burning, trade resumed to normal except no more Opium was allowed. Like many other instances of the government removing legitimate sale of a drug, the black market increased markedly.
- In July 1839 a new scandal rocked the British-Chinese trade system; two British sailors became drunk and beat a man death outside of his village. In response, Superintendent Elliot arrested the two men and paid compensation to the villager’s family for the loss of the man but Elliot refused to hand over the sailors to the Qing government. Lin Zexu saw this as a blatant disregard for Chinese law—afterall traders needed to understand that they can’t just come to China and violate Chinese law as they saw fit. Elliot offered to hold a trial on a British ship in front of Chinese officials to show that the men would not get off free. This incident would start the smoldering.
- On September 4th, Elliot sent two ships to Kowloon to buy food and provisions from Chinese peasants. While approaching the harbor, three Chinese war junks gave permission to the two British ships to trade but that permission was rescinded by the commander of Kowloon fort. Elliot fumed against the slight and said that if the British were not allowed to trade by 3pm, he would fire on the fort. 3pm passed and the British opened fire on the fort causing the Chinese junks to return fire. The fighting continued for 7 hours until nightfall and Elliot had to prevent the British officers from pressing the attack, thus ending the Battle of Kowloon. Having driven off the Chinese ships, the British purchased the supplies they needed while the Kowloon commander claimed that both ships were sunk and 50 British sailors killed.
- The reaction in Britain was about as much as you expect. Prime Minister Palmerston sent out letters to the Governor General of India to prepare marines to invade China and another letter to the Chinese Emperor telling him that Britain would send a military force. He sent a letter to Superintendent Elliot to set up a blockade on the Pearl River and capture Chusan Island. He also instructed Elliot to accomplish the following objectives:
- Demand the respect as a British envoy from the Qing Government.
- Secure the right for British law to be doled out on British subjects
- Get recompense for destroyed British property, especially the illegal drugs that they destroyed
- And most important, End the Canton System thus opening up China to free trade for the first time, ever.
Alright this is where we will leave things off for now, on the brink of war with China. Stay tuned!
2023.06.09 03:48 InjuredJonny [WTS] Hinderers, Striders, CKF Snafu 2.0, and Microtechs
Got some blades up for sale today, NO TRADES whatsoever unless they’d blow my socks off, lol wanna free up cash for other blades.Payment via paypal ff, zelle, venmo, cashapp, and price includes shipping.
-Jurrasic Hinderer pre triway, black/gray G10 scale, really like this, no box or anything, just the sexy knife lol. Ergos are top of the line on this model, DLC Jurrasic, has black pocket clip screws and body screws on it, edge was touched up. There are marks on the clip and some on the frame, and a few on the blade please check out the vid. Very nice knife,
Hinderer Eklipse full ti bowie battle blue, I had over 50 hinderers at one point, and I shit you not this one has/had the best action out of all of them, just not my preferred blade finish so off it goes. Has some rub on the clip, and some very light wear on the blade. The WF hides it well, comes with box and G10 scale and liner and all accessories. Has a matching battle blue textured titanium scale on it atm which it will come with as well, thanks!
-655 shipped https://imgur.com/a/5P5Xaad
-Hinderer XM18 3.5 Spear point Bronze sw, with copper 35 A filler tab (original filler tab will not be included). So this one was carried a few times and blade was sparingly used on tape, blade looks pristine, only signs of wear are on the edge of the frame's spine, I inculded a pick, some pocket rub/wear from going in and out, and then one light snail on the clip. that's it, comes with exrtra Triway kit, stickers, card and box.
-430 shipped https://imgur.com/a/Grfa2cB
Ultratech signature series bronzed hellhound, with G10 top, this is a very nice blade but it's for sale. In excellent condition do not have the original box but will include a generic microtech box and paperwork, thanks!
-390 shipped https://imgur.com/a/ZiKojHW
UTX 70 blue handle DLC blade, no box just the knife. The blade is pristine but the handle has pocket wear from when it was just carried around, please observe the pics, has wear on the corners and clip. Thanks!- 179 shipped https://imgur.com/a/KKojMxG
CKF Snafu 2.0: in very good shape but does some light surface snails on the ti and clip. Shown in the pics, Blade is pristine and action is oh so very nice. comes with pouch and COA and all extra stuff that was included. lmk thanks!-750 shipped https://imgur.com/a/phplFEx
Strider SnG GG Aluminum PSF27 steel, okay so this was pocketed and used, there are light hairline marks throughout the blade please observe pics, action and lock up are solid. Nice blade,- SOLD SOLD 465 shipped https://imgur.com/a/5fvuX3T
Strider GG G10 PD1 steel, put some white shit in the blade steel stamp to make it pop, can take it out with some nail polish removeacetone, light user, some snails here and there through out, slightly off center as well.-SOLD SOLD 545 SOLD shippedhttps://imgur.com/a/qLQo1HP
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